"Chinese Water Tower"! The ecological importance of the Three Rivers Region is self-evident.
People have used "Sanjiangyuan colds, sneezing around the world" as an image metaphor. Here, more than 60 billion cubic meters of clean water is transported downstream each year, accounting for 25%, 49%, and 15% of the total water volume of the Yangtze, Yellow, and Lancang rivers, respectively. However, the ecological environment here deteriorated for a time. Once upon a time, due to human activities, overgrazing, and natural change, this primitive fertile soil has shown a crisis of degradation and desertification. By 2004, more than 90% of the past 4,000 lakes had dried up, and the source of the Yellow River was once cut off.
"The intensity is great, the concept is ahead of schedule." Over the next ten years, Sanjiangyuan's ecological protection and construction projects are ready to go: the rivers and rivers will be treated together, pollution control and ecological remodeling measures will be launched together. The "iron-fist" treatment was started under the environment of "forced down". Qinghai comprehensively implemented such projects as desertification control, grazing prohibition, grazing return, grassland protection, and artificial rain enhancement in the four states and 17 counties and cities of the Three River Source Region. Completely stopped the assessment of the GDP of the Three Rivers source area, shut down a batch of high-polluting and high-energy-consuming industries, and included about 90% of the province's land into the industrial prohibited or restricted development areas.
In order to protect this pure land, China has started Phase I and Phase II of Sanjiangyuan Ecological Protection and Construction since 2005. Among them, an investment of 7.5 billion yuan officially launched the first phase of Sanjiangyuan's ecological protection and construction project, with manual intervention and emergency protection of this important water conservation area. In recent years, the Sanjiangyuan area has also vigorously promoted green development methods focusing on green energy, green industry, green consumption, and green agriculture and animal husbandry. Since 2005, China has invested more than 18 billion yuan in ecological protection in the Sanjiangyuan region, and will invest another 900 million yuan this year.
However, in the reborn Sanjiangyuan, the ecology is still fragile, and the contradictions of related institutions and mechanisms have also appeared. In January 2014, the construction of the Sanjiangyuan National Ecological Protection Comprehensive Experimental Zone with higher investment and stricter standards and the second phase of the Sanjiangyuan Ecological Protection and Construction project officially started. The ecological restoration and control area reached 395,000 square kilometers, which also marked the Sanjiangyuan Ecological protection has embarked on a new journey. The video monitoring data was transmitted to the provincial ecological environment monitoring center in real time through the digital network, and a dual combination management and protection mode of monitoring and monitoring was formed.
In June 2016, the Sanjiangyuan National Park Management Bureau was officially listed. The management committees of the three parks of the Yangtze River Source, the Yellow River Source, and the Lancang River Source were established together. With the advancement of national park trials, county-level departments in charge of land, environmental protection, water conservancy, and forestry have been integrated into the management committee, and have also been integrated into a resource environment and law enforcement bureau under the management committee. At the same time, break the original division of nature reserves, and implement vertical and unified management of 123,100 square kilometers of parks.
In practice from scratch, Sanjiangyuan National Park has basically completed 31 tasks determined by relevant deployment opinions. During this period, the relationship between the ownership of natural resources and administrative rights was straightened out, the situation of water management in Kowloon was broken, and the fragmentation of law enforcement and supervision was resolved. At present, the pilot tasks of the Sanjiangyuan National Park system have been fully completed, and the conditions for the formal establishment of the Sanjiangyuan National Park in 2020 have been met.
"Through the implementation of a series of protection measures such as banning grazing and grass restoration, and artificial rain enhancement, the number of lakes at the source of the Yellow River has increased to 5050 over the past ten years." It increased to an annual average of 40.895 billion cubic meters, an increase of 6.25%. The data show that within the territory of Qinghai Province, the excellent quality of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Lancang River has reached 100%. As the source of the three rivers, Qinghai transports about 60 billion cubic meters of source water to the downstream each year, benefiting 20 provinces and regions in the country and 5 countries in the Lan (Cangjiang) and Mekong (Gonghe) basins such as Myanmar.
At the same time, Qinghai comprehensively implemented dust suppression, coal reduction, vehicle control, corporate governance, and greening measures, and continued to focus on the cities and towns where the two cities and six prefecture governments are located, and vigorously promoted the comprehensive treatment of air pollution across the province to promote further improvement in air quality. The "coal-to-electricity" project aimed at clean heating is also accelerating its popularity in Yushu and other places, and is expected to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by nearly 200,000 tons per year. Especially in 2019, the ecological restoration in the Sanjiangyuan area will continue to increase. By 2020, Sanjiangyuan's remote video observation points will reach 100, and the total investment in the first and second phases of the Sanjiangyuan area is expected to reach 24 billion yuan.